• GRADE 8 GENERAL SCIENCE OBJECTIVES      

    Chemistry Section 

    Chapter One 

    Describe the difference between observation and inference.

    Describe the steps of the scientific method.

    Discuss the importance of a control and variable set-up.

    Identify common metric units.

    Use dimensional analysis to convert to different metric units.

    Describe various physical science tools.

    Discuss appropriate responses to various safety situations.

    Discuss different safety equipment.

    Chapter Two

    Explain the term "matter".

    Describe the properties of matter.

    Compare mass and weight.

    Define volume and identify proper units.

    Define density and compare various densities.

    Describe why an object floats or sinks. 

    Chapter Three

    Compare and distinguish between physical and chemical properties.

    Identify a phase as a physical property.

    Describe the four phases of matter.

    Describe Boyle's Law.

    Describe Charles' Law.

    Identify the phase changes of matter.

    Explain how energy results in changes of phases. 

    Chapter Four

    Identify the 4 classes of matter.

    Describe the properties of a mixture.

    Compare heterogeneous and homogenous mixtures.

    Explain what a solution is and what its properties are.

    Explain the relation between atoms and elements.

    Identify the chemical symbols for some common elements.

    Describe how a compound differs from an element.

    Explain how a molecule is represented.

    Explain how to balance an equation. 

    Chapter Five

    Investigate the history of models of atoms.

    Classify the three main subatomic particles.

    Describe the structure of the atom.

    Identify the forces associated with atomic structure. 

    Chapter Six

    Explain Mendelev's periodic table.

    Explain the concepts of atomic mass, valence, and atomic number.

    Understand the design of the modem periodic table.

    Discuss how families contain elements with similar properties.

    Explain how periods have the same valence shell number.

    Compare the properties of metals, nonmetals, and metalloids.

    Describe the properties of some families.

    Describe some periodic properties of the elements.

    Explain how the electron arrangement changes across a period.

    Explain the changes in atomic size across a period.

    Chapter Seven

    Describe chemical bonding in terms of an atoms electron arrangement.

    Define energy level.

    List the maximum number of electrons in the first 3 energy levels.

    Predict an atom's charge after electrons are added or lost.

    Describe the difference between ionic and covalent bonds.

    Utilize electron dot diagrams to display a covalently bonded molecule.

    Define a metallic bond.

    Describe the properties of metals.

    Predict the formation of compounds between elements. 

    Chapter Eight

    Describe the characteristics of chemical reactions.

    Define reactant and product.

    Explain how a substance's capacity to react deals with the energy levels.

    Describe how equations describe reactions.

    Explain that equations illustrate the Law of Conservation.

    Balance chemical equations.

    Describe a synthesis reaction.

    Describe a decomposition reaction.

    Describe single and double replacement reactions.

    Distinguish between endothermic and exothermic reactions.

    Define and discuss activation energy.

    List four factors that affect the rate of a chemical reaction.

    Explain the role of a catalyst. 

    Chapter Nine

    State the properties of acids and bases.

    Explain the use of a pH scale.

     

    Physics Section

    Chapter Twelve

    Describe why motion is relative to a frame of reference.

    Define motion and speed.

    Calculate speed.

    Distinguish between speed and velocity.

    Define acceleration.

    Calculate acceleration.

    Define momentum.

    Explain the Law of Conservation of momentum. 

    Chapter Thirteen

    Define force.

    Explain how force is related to motion.

    Describe friction.

    Identify the three types of friction.

    Define inertia.

    Describe Newton's three laws of motion.

    Discuss gravity.

    Examine acceleration due to gravity. 

    Chapter Fourteen

    Describe pressure and explain why it exists.

    Calculate pressure.

    Explain the principles used in the operation of hydraulic devices.

    Describe the properties of pressure on hydraulic devices.

    Explain why pressure varies in a fluid.

    Explain buoyancy.

    Describe Archimede's principle.

    Describe density.

    Explain Bernoulli's principle. 

    Chapter Fifteen

    Explain work in terms of distance and force; and calculate work.

    Explain power and calculate power.

    Define a machine.

    Explain mechanical advantage and efficiency.

    Identify six simple machines and describe how they work.

    Explain the differences among the three classes of levers.

    Describe how pulleys work.

    Chapter Sixteen 

    Explain how energy and work are related.

    List the five main forms of energy.

    Describe the two states of energy.

    Describe kinetic and potential energy.

    Define energy conversion.

    Describe gravitational potential energy.

    State the Law of Conservation of Energy.

    Relate energy to speed, momentum, force, power, and work. 

    Chapter Seventeen

    Describe how heat energy is created by moving molecules.

    Give examples of heat energy transfer by conduction, convection, and radiation.

    Define temperature in terms of kinetic energy.

    Explain various temperature scales.

    Explain how transfer of energy brings about phase change.

    Explain heat of fusion and heat of vaporization.

    Define freezing point, melting point, and boiling point.

    Explain thermal expansion. 

    Chapter Eighteen

     

    Name the three principal subatomic particles.

    Describe the forces that act between like and unlike charges.

    Compare friction, conduction, and induction.

    Explain the difference between insulators and conductors.

    Chapter Nineteen 

    Describe magnetism

    Describe the property of magnetic poles.

    Identify magnetic domain.

    Explain the magnetic poles and magnetic field on earth.

    Explain how a compass works.

    Describe the difference between geographic and magnetic poles.

    Chapter Twenty

    Explain a wave in terms of energy.

    Define wavelength, frequency, and amplitude.

    Compare the characteristics of waves.

    Classify waves as transverse, longitudinal, or surface.

    Relate speed, frequency, and wavelength.

    Identify examples of each type of wave interaction. 

    Chapter Twenty-one

    Explain how sound waves are produced and transmitted.

    Describe how the speed of sound is affected by density of the medium it travels.

    Describe the properties of sound.

    Explain how frequency and pitch are related.

    Describe the Doppler Effect.

    Explain the process of sonar.

    Chapter Twenty-two

    Describe the nature of an electromagnetic wave.

    Identify the parts of the electromagnetic spectrum.

    Explain the relationship between wavelength and frequency.

    Explain the difference between hot and cold lights.

    Distinguish between the particle and wave properties of light.